CheXpert is a large dataset of chest X-rays and competition for automated chest x-ray interpretation, which features uncertainty labels and radiologist-labeled reference standard evaluation sets.Read the Paper (Irvin & Rajpurkar et al.)
Chest radiography is the most common imaging examination globally, critical for screening, diagnosis, and management of many life threatening diseases. Automated chest radiograph interpretation at the level of practicing radiologists could provide substantial benefit in many medical settings, from improved workflow prioritization and clinical decision support to large-scale screening and global population health initiatives. For progress in both development and validation of automated algorithms, we realized there was a need for a labeled dataset that (1) was large, (2) had strong reference standards, and (3) provided expert human performance metrics for comparison.
Will your model perform as well as radiologists in detecting different pathologies in chest X-rays?
|Leaderboard Activating February 2019|
CheXpert uses a hidden test set for official evaluation of models. Teams submit their executable code on Codalab, which is then run on a test set that is not publicly readable. Such a setup preserves the integrity of the test results.
Here's a tutorial walking you through official evaluation of your model. Once your model has been evaluated officially, your scores will be added to the leaderboard.
CheXpert is a large public dataset for chest radiograph interpretation, consisting of 224,316 chest radiographs of 65,240 patients. We retrospectively collected the chest radiographic examinations from Stanford Hospital, performed between October 2002 and July 2017 in both inpatient and outpatient centers, along with their associated radiology reports.
Each report was labeled for the presence of 14 observations as positive, negative, or uncertain. We decided on the 14 observations based on the prevalence in the reports and clinical relevance, conforming to the Fleischner Society’s recommended glossary whenever applicable. We then developed an automated rule-based labeler to extract observations from the free text radiology reports to be used as structured labels for the images.
Our labeler is set up in three distinct stages: mention extraction, mention classification, and mention aggregation. In the mention extraction stage, the labeler extracts mentions from a list of observations from the Impression section of radiology reports, which summarizes the key findings in the radiographic study. In the mention classification stage, mentions of observations are classified as negative, uncertain, or positive. In the mention aggregation stage, we use the classification for each mention of observations to arrive at a final label for the 14 observations (blank for unmentioned, 0 for negative, -1 for uncertain, and 1 for positive).Use the labeling tool
We train models that take as input a single-view chest radiograph and output the probability of each of the 14 observations. When more than one view is available, the models output the maximum probability of the observations across the views.
The training labels in the dataset for each observation are either 0 (negative), 1 (positive), or u (uncertain). We explore different approaches to using the uncertainty labels during the model training.
We focus on the evaluation of 5 observations which we call the competition tasks, selected based of clinical importance and prevalence: (a) Atelectasis, (b) Cardiomegaly, (c) Consolidation, (d) Edema, and (e) Pleural Effusion. We compare the performance of the different uncertainty approaches on a validation set of 200 studies on which the consensus of three radiologist annotations serves as ground truth. Our baseline model is selected based on the best performing approach on each competition tasks on the validation set: U-Ones for Atelectasis and Edema, U-MultiClass for Cardiomegaly and Pleural Effusion, and U-SelfTrained for Consolidation.
The test set consists of 500 studies from 500 unseen patients. Eight board-certified radiologists individually annotated each of the studies in the test set, classifying each observation into one of present, uncertain likely, uncertain unlikely, and absent. Their annotations were binarized such that all present and uncertain likely cases are treated as positive and all absent and uncertain unlikely cases are treated as negative. The majority vote of 5 radiologist annotations serves as a strong ground truth; the remaining 3 radiologist annotations were used to benchmark radiologist performance.
For each of the 3 individual radiologists and for their majority vote, we compute sensitivity (recall), specificity, and precision against the test set ground truth. To compare the model to radiologists, we plot the radiologist operating points with the model on both the ROC and Precision-Recall (PR) space. We examine whether the radiologist operating points lie below the curves to determine if the model is superior to the radiologists.
The model achieves the best AUC on Pleural Effusion (0.97), and the worst on Atelectasis (0.85). The AUC of all other observations are at least 0.9. On Cardiomegaly, Edema, and Pleural Effusion, the model achieves higher performance than all 3 radiologists but not their majority vote. On Consolidation, model performance exceeds 2 of the 3 radiologists, and on Atelectasis, all 3 radiologists perform better than the model.
We're co-releasing our dataset with MIMIC-CXR, a large dataset of 371,920 chest x-rays associated with 227,943 imaging studies sourced from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2011 - 2016. Each imaging study can pertain to one or more images, but most often are associated with two images: a frontal view and a lateral view. Images are provided with 14 labels derived from a natural language processing tool applied to the corresponding free-text radiology reports.
Both our dataset and MIMIC-CXR share a common labeler, the CheXpert labeler, for deriving the same set of labels from free-text radiology reports.
One of the main obstacles in the development of chest radiograph interpretation models has been the lack of datasets with strong radiologist-annotated groundtruth and expert scores against which researchers can compare their models. We hope that CheXpert will address that gap, making it easy to track the progress of models over time on a clinically important task.
Furthermore, we have developed and open-sourced the CheXpert labeler, an automated rule-based labeler to extract observations from the free text radiology reports to be used as structured labels for the images. We hope that this makes it easy to help other institutions extract structured labels from their reports and release other large repositories of data that will allow for cross-institutional testing of medical imaging models.
Finally, we hope that the dataset will help development and validation of chest radiograph interpretation models towards improving healthcare access and delivery worldwide.
Professor of Radiology
In the U.S., about half of all radiology studies are x-rays, mostly of the chest. Chest x-ray studies are even more common around the world. Chest x-ray interpretation is a “bread and butter” problem for radiologists with vital public health implications. Chest x-rays can stop the spread of tuberculosis, detect lung cancer early, and support the responsible use of antibiotics.
Assistant Professor of Radiology
Ground truth is critical in evaluating deep learning models in medical imaging and provide the foundation for clinical relevance when interpreting results in this field - this is why we focus a lot of our effort on considering the best available ground truth via a panel of medical sub specialist experts to best understand the clinical implication of our model results.
Please read the Stanford University School of Medicine CheXpert Dataset Research Use Agreement. Once you register to download the CheXpert dataset, you will receive a link to the download over email. Note that you may not share the link to download the dataset with others.
1. Permission is granted to view and use the CheXpert Dataset without charge for personal, non-commercial research purposes only. Any commercial use, sale, or other monetization is prohibited.
2. Other than the rights granted herein, the Stanford University School of Medicine (“School of Medicine”) retains all rights, title, and interest in the CheXpert Dataset.
3. You may make a verbatim copy of the CheXpert Dataset for personal, non-commercial research use as permitted in this Research Use Agreement. If another user within your organization wishes to use the CheXpert Dataset, they must register as an individual user and comply with all the terms of this Research Use Agreement.
4. YOU MAY NOT DISTRIBUTE, PUBLISH, OR REPRODUCE A COPY of any portion or all of the CheXpert Dataset to others without specific prior written permission from the School of Medicine.
5. YOU MAY NOT SHARE THE DOWNLOAD LINK to the CheXpert dataset to others. If another user within your organization wishes to use the CheXpert Dataset, they must register as an individual user and comply with all the terms of this Research Use Agreement.
6. You must not modify, reverse engineer, decompile, or create derivative works from the CheXpert Dataset. You must not remove or alter any copyright or other proprietary notices in the CheXpert Dataset.
7. The CheXpert Dataset has not been reviewed or approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and is for non-clinical, Research Use Only. In no event shall data or images generated through the use of the CheXpert Dataset be used or relied upon in the diagnosis or provision of patient care.
8. THE CheXpert DATASET IS PROVIDED "AS IS," AND STANFORD UNIVERSITY AND ITS COLLABORATORS DO NOT MAKE ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NOR DO THEY ASSUME ANY LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE USE OF THIS CheXpert DATASET.
9. You will not make any attempt to re-identify any of the individual data subjects. Re-identification of individuals is strictly prohibited. Any re-identification of any individual data subject shall be immediately reported to the School of Medicine.
10. Any violation of this Research Use Agreement or other impermissible use shall be grounds for immediate termination of use of this CheXpert Dataset. In the event that the School of Medicine determines that the recipient has violated this Research Use Agreement or other impermissible use has been made, the School of Medicine may direct that the undersigned data recipient immediately return all copies of the CheXpert Dataset and retain no copies thereof even if you did not cause the violation or impermissible use.
In consideration for your agreement to the terms and conditions contained here, Stanford grants you permission to view and use the CheXpert Dataset for personal, non-commercial research. You may not otherwise copy, reproduce, retransmit, distribute, publish, commercially exploit or otherwise transfer any material.
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